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Cattle Breed Improvement Programme of SSB

 Animal Husbandry is the backbone of Indian rural economy. Cattle’s rearing is one of the main components of Animal Husbandry.  Assam has a large number of cattle population but milk production per animal is very low.  The best tool to increase the milk production is breed improvement by adopting modern techniques of Animal Husbandry including Artificial Insemination.  Increasing the productivity of cattle is one of the most important tools of increasing the income of rural population. 

 

The cows in Assam are of non-descript type breed, small in size and have very poor milk production. The physical characters of any individual depend upon the genes/ genetic makeup. 50 % of the genes come from dam and 50% of the genes come from sire. Therefore, to improve the genetic character of local cattle we have to introduce sires of best quality. This can be done by two methods:-

1.     Introduction of good quality bulls for Natural Insemination. This has limitations as maintenance of bulls in villages is a great challenge. Therefore, the scheme of introducing high quality bulls could not become popular.

2.     Artificial Insemination:- Artificial Insemination is the technique in which semen with living sperms is collected from the male and introduced into female reproductive tract at proper time with the help of instruments.

 Visualising this fact SSB has  taken an initiative  and established six Artificial Insemination cum Veterinary First Aid Centres as a pilot project in remote villages on Indo-Bhutan Border for breed improvement of local cattle under its Civic Action Programme.  This is a part of Comprehensive Border Management.  Such efforts will surely inculcate the interest of rural population in Animal Husbandry.

           These Artificial Insemination cum Veterinary First Aid Centres have been opened with the help of Assam Livestock Development Agency ( ALDA), Guwahati.   ALDA has provided AI equipments like Cryocans, AI Guns etc free of cost. However, semen straws are being provided at the cost of Rs 50/- per straw.

 

Advantages of Artificial Insemination:

There are several advantages by artificial insemination over natural mating or servicing.

  • There is no need of maintenance of breeding bull for a herd; hence the cost of maintenance of breeding bull is saved.
  • It prevents the spread of certain diseases and sterility due to genital diseases e.g  contagious  abortion,  vibriosis.
  • By regular examination of semen after collection and frequent checking on fertility make early detection of interior males and better breeding efficiency is ensured.
  • The progeny testing can be done at an early age.
  • The semen of a desired sire can be used even after the death of that particular sire.
  • The semen collected can be taken to the urban areas or rural areas for insemination.
  • It makes possible the mating of animals with great differences in size without injury to either of the animal.
  • It is helpful to inseminate the animals that are refuse to stands or accept the male at the time of oestrum.
  • It increases the rate of conception.
  • Old, heavy and injured sires can be used.

There are certain limitations of Artificial Insemination viz. :-

  • Requires well-trained inseminator / AI worker and special equipment.
  • Requires more time than natural services.
  • Necessitates the knowledge of the structure and function of reproduction on the part of operator.
  • Improper cleaning of instruments and in sanitary conditions may lead to lower fertility.
  • If the bull is not properly tested, the spreading of genital diseases will be increased.

The major part of success or failure depends upon the skill and technical expertise of Inseminator or AI worker. Therefore, before deployment in AI Centres SSB has ensured proper selection and training of Para-Veterinary Staff. 

           If health care of animals is not given due attention then even best quality animal will not be able to produce milk to its full genetic potential.   Therefore, these centres are also providing the veterinary medicines free of cost.

 

The SSB Artificial Insemination cum Veterinary First Aid Centres are getting excellent response from the local population. The fertility camps have also been organized with the help of Assam Animal Husbandry Department.

The progress  of Artificial Insemination and treatment of livestock in Artificial Insemination cum Veterinary First Aid Centres from 2013 up to April 2017 are as under:

Sl No.

Location of Artificial Insemination(A.I) cum Veterinary First Aid Centre

No. of A.I. done

No. of calf born

No.of animals treated

Male

Female

1.

Kumarshali BoP of 15th Bn

129

12

9

5717

2.

Bishnupur BoP of 15th Bn

353

81

90

3.

Saralpara BoP of 16th Bn

86

24

13

3014

4.

Bhutankuthi BoP of 32nd Bn

545

99

96

6317

5.

Gaidong Chowk BoP of 33rdBn

311

66

59

9513

6.

Paharpur BoP of 33rd Bn

324

114

117

 

Total

1748

396

384

24561

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Monthly Progress Report for AI for the month of April 2017

Sl No.

Location of Artificial Insemination(A.I) cum Veterinary First Aid Centre

No. of A.I. done

No. of calf born

No. of animals treated

Male

Female

1.

Kumarshali BoP of 15th Bn

-

 

 

 

04

2.

Bishnupur BoP of 15th Bn

06

05

 

3.

Saralpara BoP of 16th Bn

07

 

 

 

4.

Bhutankuthi BoP of 32nd Bn

25

02

02

612

5.

Gaidong Chowk BoP of 24th Bn

07

 

 

991

6.

Paharpur BoP of 24th  Bn

18

 

 

 

Total

63

07

06

2033

It has also been seen that people are lacking knowledge about modern concepts of Animal Husbandry practices. SSB Veterinary Officers and Para-veterinary staff are regularly delivering lectures in remote border area villages to create awareness among rural population about various aspects of modern Animal Husbandry practices.

 Efforts of Artificial Insemination will not yield desired results if non-descript inferior quality bull are allowed to breed freely. Therefore, we have also taken initiative to castrate inferior quality bulls. Since the establishment of such centres 403 castrations of inferior quality local bulls have been done to prevent the breeding by them.

 Therefore, this is the beginning of genetic improvement of local cattle and increasing the milk production per cattle in the border villages located on Indo-Bhutan Border resulting in economic upliftment of the border population.

 



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